지난번 포스팅에서는 R 그래프 모수(Graphical Parameters)를 설정하는 2가지 방법, 선의 유형(Line Type, lty)과 선의 두께(Line Width, lwd), 기호의 크기(Size of Character, cex) 옵션에 대해서 알아보았습니다.


이번 포스팅에서는 그래프 모수 중에서 색깔(color) 설정하는 방법에 대해서 알아보겠습니다.



[ 색 관련 모수 별 기능 설명 ]


 색 관련 모수

(parameters of color)

기능 설명 (description)

 col

 기호, 선, 문자 등의 색깔을 디폴트로 지정 (default plotting color)

 col.axis

 축의 색 지정 (color for axis annotation)

 col.lab

 x축과 y축의 Label 색 지정 (color for x and y labels)

 col.main

 제목 색 지정 (color for main title)

 col.sub

 부제목의 색 지정 (color for sub titles)

 fg

 그래프 전경 색 지정 (color for foreground)

 bg

 그래프 배경 색 지정 (color for background)


아마도 대부분은 col 모수를 주로 사용하고 나머지 색상 관련 모수는 거의 사용하지 않을 듯 합니다만, R에서는 사용자가 원하면 거의 모든 부분의 색상을 원하는대로 설정할 수 있는 극강의 자유도를 제공합니다.  R이 그래픽의 절대강자인 이유가 이처럼 다양한 모수를 제공해주는데 있습니다.  초보자라면 그냥 디폴트 옵션 사용하시면 되구요, 그래프에 욕심이 있는 분이라면 R의 색상 모수에 대해서 차근차근 공부해두시면 유용할 것입니다.


하나씩 차례대로 살펴보도록 하겠습니다.


  • 기호, 선, 문자 등의 디폴트 색 지정 (default plotting color) : col
R에서 지원하는 색의 종류에는 657개가 있습니다.  colors() 함수를 사용하면 657개 전체 색 리스트를 볼 수 가 있습니다.

 

> ##-------------------------------
> ## Graphical parameters : color
> ##-------------------------------
> 
> length(colors())
[1] 657
> 
> colors()
  [1] "white"                "aliceblue"            "antiquewhite"        
  [4] "antiquewhite1"        "antiquewhite2"        "antiquewhite3"       
  [7] "antiquewhite4"        "aquamarine"           "aquamarine1"         
 [10] "aquamarine2"          "aquamarine3"          "aquamarine4"         
 [13] "azure"                "azure1"               "azure2"              
 [16] "azure3"               "azure4"               "beige"               
 [19] "bisque"               "bisque1"              "bisque2"             
 [22] "bisque3"              "bisque4"              "black"               
 [25] "blanchedalmond"       "blue"                 "blue1"               
 [28] "blue2"                "blue3"                "blue4"               
 [31] "blueviolet"           "brown"                "brown1"              
 [34] "brown2"               "brown3"               "brown4"              
 [37] "burlywood"            "burlywood1"           "burlywood2"          
 [40] "burlywood3"           "burlywood4"           "cadetblue"           
 [43] "cadetblue1"           "cadetblue2"           "cadetblue3"          
 [46] "cadetblue4"           "chartreuse"           "chartreuse1"         
 [49] "chartreuse2"          "chartreuse3"          "chartreuse4"         
 [52] "chocolate"            "chocolate1"           "chocolate2"          
 [55] "chocolate3"           "chocolate4"           "coral"               
 [58] "coral1"               "coral2"               "coral3"              
 [61] "coral4"               "cornflowerblue"       "cornsilk"            
 [64] "cornsilk1"            "cornsilk2"            "cornsilk3"           
 [67] "cornsilk4"            "cyan"                 "cyan1"               
 [70] "cyan2"                "cyan3"                "cyan4"               
 [73] "darkblue"             "darkcyan"             "darkgoldenrod"       
 [76] "darkgoldenrod1"       "darkgoldenrod2"       "darkgoldenrod3"      
 [79] "darkgoldenrod4"       "darkgray"             "darkgreen"           
 [82] "darkgrey"             "darkkhaki"            "darkmagenta"         
 [85] "darkolivegreen"       "darkolivegreen1"      "darkolivegreen2"     
 [88] "darkolivegreen3"      "darkolivegreen4"      "darkorange"          
 [91] "darkorange1"          "darkorange2"          "darkorange3"         
 [94] "darkorange4"          "darkorchid"           "darkorchid1"         
 [97] "darkorchid2"          "darkorchid3"          "darkorchid4"         
[100] "darkred"              "darksalmon"           "darkseagreen"        
[103] "darkseagreen1"        "darkseagreen2"        "darkseagreen3"       
[106] "darkseagreen4"        "darkslateblue"        "darkslategray"       
[109] "darkslategray1"       "darkslategray2"       "darkslategray3"      
[112] "darkslategray4"       "darkslategrey"        "darkturquoise"       
[115] "darkviolet"           "deeppink"             "deeppink1"           
[118] "deeppink2"            "deeppink3"            "deeppink4"           
[121] "deepskyblue"          "deepskyblue1"         "deepskyblue2"        
[124] "deepskyblue3"         "deepskyblue4"         "dimgray"             
[127] "dimgrey"              "dodgerblue"           "dodgerblue1"         
[130] "dodgerblue2"          "dodgerblue3"          "dodgerblue4"         
[133] "firebrick"            "firebrick1"           "firebrick2"          
[136] "firebrick3"           "firebrick4"           "floralwhite"         
[139] "forestgreen"          "gainsboro"            "ghostwhite"          
[142] "gold"                 "gold1"                "gold2"               
[145] "gold3"                "gold4"                "goldenrod"           
[148] "goldenrod1"           "goldenrod2"           "goldenrod3"          
[151] "goldenrod4"           "gray"                 "gray0"               
[154] "gray1"                "gray2"                "gray3"               
[157] "gray4"                "gray5"                "gray6"               
[160] "gray7"                "gray8"                "gray9"               
[163] "gray10"               "gray11"               "gray12"              
[166] "gray13"               "gray14"               "gray15"              
[169] "gray16"               "gray17"               "gray18"              
[172] "gray19"               "gray20"               "gray21"              
[175] "gray22"               "gray23"               "gray24"              
[178] "gray25"               "gray26"               "gray27"              
[181] "gray28"               "gray29"               "gray30"              
[184] "gray31"               "gray32"               "gray33"              
[187] "gray34"               "gray35"               "gray36"              
[190] "gray37"               "gray38"               "gray39"              
[193] "gray40"               "gray41"               "gray42"              
[196] "gray43"               "gray44"               "gray45"              
[199] "gray46"               "gray47"               "gray48"              
[202] "gray49"               "gray50"               "gray51"              
[205] "gray52"               "gray53"               "gray54"              
[208] "gray55"               "gray56"               "gray57"              
[211] "gray58"               "gray59"               "gray60"              
[214] "gray61"               "gray62"               "gray63"              
[217] "gray64"               "gray65"               "gray66"              
[220] "gray67"               "gray68"               "gray69"              
[223] "gray70"               "gray71"               "gray72"              
[226] "gray73"               "gray74"               "gray75"              
[229] "gray76"               "gray77"               "gray78"              
[232] "gray79"               "gray80"               "gray81"              
[235] "gray82"               "gray83"               "gray84"              
[238] "gray85"               "gray86"               "gray87"              
[241] "gray88"               "gray89"               "gray90"              
[244] "gray91"               "gray92"               "gray93"              
[247] "gray94"               "gray95"               "gray96"              
[250] "gray97"               "gray98"               "gray99"              
[253] "gray100"              "green"                "green1"              
[256] "green2"               "green3"               "green4"              
[259] "greenyellow"          "grey"                 "grey0"               
[262] "grey1"                "grey2"                "grey3"               
[265] "grey4"                "grey5"                "grey6"               
[268] "grey7"                "grey8"                "grey9"               
[271] "grey10"               "grey11"               "grey12"              
[274] "grey13"               "grey14"               "grey15"              
[277] "grey16"               "grey17"               "grey18"              
[280] "grey19"               "grey20"               "grey21"              
[283] "grey22"               "grey23"               "grey24"              
[286] "grey25"               "grey26"               "grey27"              
[289] "grey28"               "grey29"               "grey30"              
[292] "grey31"               "grey32"               "grey33"              
[295] "grey34"               "grey35"               "grey36"              
[298] "grey37"               "grey38"               "grey39"              
[301] "grey40"               "grey41"               "grey42"              
[304] "grey43"               "grey44"               "grey45"              
[307] "grey46"               "grey47"               "grey48"              
[310] "grey49"               "grey50"               "grey51"              
[313] "grey52"               "grey53"               "grey54"              
[316] "grey55"               "grey56"               "grey57"              
[319] "grey58"               "grey59"               "grey60"              
[322] "grey61"               "grey62"               "grey63"              
[325] "grey64"               "grey65"               "grey66"              
[328] "grey67"               "grey68"               "grey69"              
[331] "grey70"               "grey71"               "grey72"              
[334] "grey73"               "grey74"               "grey75"              
[337] "grey76"               "grey77"               "grey78"              
[340] "grey79"               "grey80"               "grey81"              
[343] "grey82"               "grey83"               "grey84"              
[346] "grey85"               "grey86"               "grey87"              
[349] "grey88"               "grey89"               "grey90"              
[352] "grey91"               "grey92"               "grey93"              
[355] "grey94"               "grey95"               "grey96"              
[358] "grey97"               "grey98"               "grey99"              
[361] "grey100"              "honeydew"             "honeydew1"           
[364] "honeydew2"            "honeydew3"            "honeydew4"           
[367] "hotpink"              "hotpink1"             "hotpink2"            
[370] "hotpink3"             "hotpink4"             "indianred"           
[373] "indianred1"           "indianred2"           "indianred3"          
[376] "indianred4"           "ivory"                "ivory1"              
[379] "ivory2"               "ivory3"               "ivory4"              
[382] "khaki"                "khaki1"               "khaki2"              
[385] "khaki3"               "khaki4"               "lavender"            
[388] "lavenderblush"        "lavenderblush1"       "lavenderblush2"      
[391] "lavenderblush3"       "lavenderblush4"       "lawngreen"           
[394] "lemonchiffon"         "lemonchiffon1"        "lemonchiffon2"       
[397] "lemonchiffon3"        "lemonchiffon4"        "lightblue"           
[400] "lightblue1"           "lightblue2"           "lightblue3"          
[403] "lightblue4"           "lightcoral"           "lightcyan"           
[406] "lightcyan1"           "lightcyan2"           "lightcyan3"          
[409] "lightcyan4"           "lightgoldenrod"       "lightgoldenrod1"     
[412] "lightgoldenrod2"      "lightgoldenrod3"      "lightgoldenrod4"     
[415] "lightgoldenrodyellow" "lightgray"            "lightgreen"          
[418] "lightgrey"            "lightpink"            "lightpink1"          
[421] "lightpink2"           "lightpink3"           "lightpink4"          
[424] "lightsalmon"          "lightsalmon1"         "lightsalmon2"        
[427] "lightsalmon3"         "lightsalmon4"         "lightseagreen"       
[430] "lightskyblue"         "lightskyblue1"        "lightskyblue2"       
[433] "lightskyblue3"        "lightskyblue4"        "lightslateblue"      
[436] "lightslategray"       "lightslategrey"       "lightsteelblue"      
[439] "lightsteelblue1"      "lightsteelblue2"      "lightsteelblue3"     
[442] "lightsteelblue4"      "lightyellow"          "lightyellow1"        
[445] "lightyellow2"         "lightyellow3"         "lightyellow4"        
[448] "limegreen"            "linen"                "magenta"             
[451] "magenta1"             "magenta2"             "magenta3"            
[454] "magenta4"             "maroon"               "maroon1"             
[457] "maroon2"              "maroon3"              "maroon4"             
[460] "mediumaquamarine"     "mediumblue"           "mediumorchid"        
[463] "mediumorchid1"        "mediumorchid2"        "mediumorchid3"       
[466] "mediumorchid4"        "mediumpurple"         "mediumpurple1"       
[469] "mediumpurple2"        "mediumpurple3"        "mediumpurple4"       
[472] "mediumseagreen"       "mediumslateblue"      "mediumspringgreen"   
[475] "mediumturquoise"      "mediumvioletred"      "midnightblue"        
[478] "mintcream"            "mistyrose"            "mistyrose1"          
[481] "mistyrose2"           "mistyrose3"           "mistyrose4"          
[484] "moccasin"             "navajowhite"          "navajowhite1"        
[487] "navajowhite2"         "navajowhite3"         "navajowhite4"        
[490] "navy"                 "navyblue"             "oldlace"             
[493] "olivedrab"            "olivedrab1"           "olivedrab2"          
[496] "olivedrab3"           "olivedrab4"           "orange"              
[499] "orange1"              "orange2"              "orange3"             
[502] "orange4"              "orangered"            "orangered1"          
[505] "orangered2"           "orangered3"           "orangered4"          
[508] "orchid"               "orchid1"              "orchid2"             
[511] "orchid3"              "orchid4"              "palegoldenrod"       
[514] "palegreen"            "palegreen1"           "palegreen2"          
[517] "palegreen3"           "palegreen4"           "paleturquoise"       
[520] "paleturquoise1"       "paleturquoise2"       "paleturquoise3"      
[523] "paleturquoise4"       "palevioletred"        "palevioletred1"      
[526] "palevioletred2"       "palevioletred3"       "palevioletred4"      
[529] "papayawhip"           "peachpuff"            "peachpuff1"          
[532] "peachpuff2"           "peachpuff3"           "peachpuff4"          
[535] "peru"                 "pink"                 "pink1"               
[538] "pink2"                "pink3"                "pink4"               
[541] "plum"                 "plum1"                "plum2"               
[544] "plum3"                "plum4"                "powderblue"          
[547] "purple"               "purple1"              "purple2"             
[550] "purple3"              "purple4"              "red"                 
[553] "red1"                 "red2"                 "red3"                
[556] "red4"                 "rosybrown"            "rosybrown1"          
[559] "rosybrown2"           "rosybrown3"           "rosybrown4"          
[562] "royalblue"            "royalblue1"           "royalblue2"          
[565] "royalblue3"           "royalblue4"           "saddlebrown"         
[568] "salmon"               "salmon1"              "salmon2"             
[571] "salmon3"              "salmon4"              "sandybrown"          
[574] "seagreen"             "seagreen1"            "seagreen2"           
[577] "seagreen3"            "seagreen4"            "seashell"            
[580] "seashell1"            "seashell2"            "seashell3"           
[583] "seashell4"            "sienna"               "sienna1"             
[586] "sienna2"              "sienna3"              "sienna4"             
[589] "skyblue"              "skyblue1"             "skyblue2"            
[592] "skyblue3"             "skyblue4"             "slateblue"           
[595] "slateblue1"           "slateblue2"           "slateblue3"          
[598] "slateblue4"           "slategray"            "slategray1"          
[601] "slategray2"           "slategray3"           "slategray4"          
[604] "slategrey"            "snow"                 "snow1"               
[607] "snow2"                "snow3"                "snow4"               
[610] "springgreen"          "springgreen1"         "springgreen2"        
[613] "springgreen3"         "springgreen4"         "steelblue"           
[616] "steelblue1"           "steelblue2"           "steelblue3"          
[619] "steelblue4"           "tan"                  "tan1"                
[622] "tan2"                 "tan3"                 "tan4"                
[625] "thistle"              "thistle1"             "thistle2"            
[628] "thistle3"             "thistle4"             "tomato"              
[631] "tomato1"              "tomato2"              "tomato3"             
[634] "tomato4"              "turquoise"            "turquoise1"          
[637] "turquoise2"           "turquoise3"           "turquoise4"          
[640] "violet"               "violetred"            "violetred1"          
[643] "violetred2"           "violetred3"           "violetred4"          
[646] "wheat"                "wheat1"               "wheat2"              
[649] "wheat3"               "wheat4"               "whitesmoke"          
[652] "yellow"               "yellow1"              "yellow2"             
[655] "yellow3"              "yellow4"              "yellowgreen"




위처럼 text로 색깔 이름만 있으면 알기 어려울 수도 있는데요, Earl F. Glynn 가 657개 색을 각 숫자별로 그리드에 색을 보기에 좋도록 정리를 해놓았습니다.

[ Color Chart by Earl F. Glynn, Stowers Institute for Medical Research, 24 May 2005 ]

* 출처 : http://research.stowers-institute.org/efg/R/Color/Chart/index.htm




R에서 색을 지정하는 방법에는 (1) 숫자 (index), (2) 색 이름 (color name), (3) 16진수 (hexadecimal), (4) RGB 색상표의 4가지 방법이 있습니다.

 숫자 (index)

색 이름 (color name) 

16진수 (hexadecimal) 

RGB triple 

4

(26번) blue

#0000FF

0  0  255

 NA

(62번) comflowerblue

#6495ED

100  149  237

 NA

(73번) darkblue 

#00008B 

 0  0  139



먼저 (1) 숫자(index)로 지정하는 방법은 편하긴 한데요, 선택할 수 있는 색은 아래와 같이 8가지가 있어서 매우 제한적입니다.

index

 0

 1

3

 color

흰색

(white)

검정색

(black) 

빨강색

(red) 

초록색

(green) 

파랑색

(blue) 

청록색 

(turquoise)

자홍색

(magenta)

노란색

(yellow) 

 회색

(gray)



> # color by index 1~8
> par(mfrow=c(1,2))
> pie(rep(1, 8), col = 1:8)
> pie(rep(1, 16), col = 1:16)



 



반면, (2) 이름(color name), (3) 16진법 표기 (hexadecimal), (4) RGB 색상표 (RGB triple) 은 매우 다양한 색상을 선택할 수 있는 장점이 있습니다.  아래는 Earl F. Glynn 가 작성한 색상표에서 일부를 화면캡쳐한 내용인데요, 모든 색상표는 아래의 출처에 있는 pdf url에 있습니다.

* 출처 : http://research.stowers-institute.org/efg/R/Color/Chart/ColorChart.pdf




파란색(blue)에 대해서 위의 4가지 방법, 즉  (1) 숫자 (index), (2) 색 이름 (color name), (3) 16진수 (hexadecimal), (4) RGB 색상표를 사용해서 R 함수 예를 들어보겠습니다.  파란색(blue)으로 모두 똑같은 결과가 나았습니다.

 

> ## 4 methods of color 'blue' exmaple : index, color name, hexadecimal, RGB
> 
> library(MASS) # to use Cars933 dataframe
> 
> par(mfrow = c(2,2))
> 
> # method 1 : index
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 2, pch = 19, 
+      col = 4, main = "col = 4 (index)")
> 
> # method 2 : color name
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 2, pch = 19, 
+      col = "blue", main = "col = blue (name)")
> 
> # method 3 : hexadecimal
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 2, pch = 19, 
+      col = "#0000FF", main = "col = #0000FF (hexadecimal)")
> 
> # method 4 : RGB triple
> rgb_1 <- rgb(0, 0, 255, maxColorValue=255)
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 2, pch = 19, 
+      col = rgb_1, main = "col = RGB(0, 0, 255)(RGB triple)")






R에서는 색상 관련해서 서로 보완(complementing)되거나 대조를 이루는(contrasting) 색상들을 미리 파레트 형식으로 정의(defined palettes of colors)해 놓은 것이 있습니다.  rainbow(n), heat.colors(n), terrain.colors(n), topo.colors(n), cm.colors(n) 등이 있는데요, example(rainbow) 함수를 이용해서 이들 색상표 palettes 를 살펴보겠습니다. 계속 Enter 치면 다음 화면으로 넘어갑니다.


[ 색상 파레트 (defined palattes of colors) ]

 

> ## example of rainbow palette's colors

> example(rainbow)

rainbw> require(graphics)

rainbw> # A Color Wheel
rainbw> pie(rep(1, 12), col = rainbow(12))



Hit <Return> to see next plot: rainbw> ##------ Some palettes ------------ rainbw> demo.pal <- rainbw+ function(n, border = if (n < 32) "light gray" else NA, rainbw+ main = paste("color palettes; n=", n), rainbw+ ch.col = c("rainbow(n, start=.7, end=.1)", "heat.colors(n)", rainbw+ "terrain.colors(n)", "topo.colors(n)", rainbw+ "cm.colors(n)")) rainbw+ { rainbw+ nt <- length(ch.col) rainbw+ i <- 1:n; j <- n / nt; d <- j/6; dy <- 2*d rainbw+ plot(i, i+d, type = "n", yaxt = "n", ylab = "", main = main) rainbw+ for (k in 1:nt) { rainbw+ rect(i-.5, (k-1)*j+ dy, i+.4, k*j, rainbw+ col = eval(parse(text = ch.col[k])), border = border) rainbw+ text(2*j, k * j + dy/4, ch.col[k]) rainbw+ } rainbw+ } rainbw> n <- if(.Device == "postscript") 64 else 16 rainbw> # Since for screen, larger n may give color allocation problem rainbw> demo.pal(n) Hit <Return> to see next plot: >





  • 축 색 지정 (color for axis annotation) : col.axis
x축과 y축의 척도 표기 색상을 지정할 때 col.axis 모수 옵션을 사용합니다.  아래에 x축과 y축 척도 표기 색상으로 파랑색, 빨강색, 노랑색, 회색으로 바꿔가면서 그래프를 그려보았습니다.

> ## color for axis annotation : col.axis

> library(MASS) # to use Cars93 dataframe > par(mfrow = c(2,2)) > plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 1, pch = 21, + col.axis = "blue", main = "col.axis = blue") > > plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 1, pch = 21, + col.axis = "red", main = "col.axis = red") > > plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 1, pch = 21, + col.axis = "yellow", main = "col.axis = yellow") > > plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 1, pch = 21, + col.axis = "gray", main = "col.axis = gray")


 





  • x축과 y축 Label 지정 (color for x and y labels) : col.lab
이번에는 x축과 y의 Lable 색을 지정하는 방법으로 col.lab 모수 옵션을 사용하면 됩니다.  파랑색, 빨강색, 노랑색, 회색으로 x축과 y축의 Lable 색을 설정하는 예를 들어보겠습니다.

> ## color for x and y labels : col.lab
> library(MASS)
> par(mfrow = c(2,2))
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 1, pch = 21, 
+      col.lab = "blue", main = "col.lab = blue")
> 
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 1, pch = 21, 
+      col.lab = "red", main = "col.lab = red")
> 
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 1, pch = 21, 
+      col.lab = "yellow", main = "col.lab = yellow")
> 
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 1, pch = 21, 
+      col.lab = "gray", main = "col.lab = gray")



 




  • 제목 색 지정 (color for main title) : col.main
> ## color for main title : col.main
> library(MASS)
> par(mfrow = c(2, 2))
> 
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 1, pch = 21, 
+      col.main = "blue", main = "col.main = blue")
> 
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 1, pch = 21, 
+      col.main = "red", main = "col.main = red")
> 
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 1, pch = 21, 
+      col.main = "yellow", main = "col.main = yellow")
> 
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 1, pch = 21, 
+      col.main = "gray", main = "col.main = gray")



 




  • 부제목 색 지정 (color for sub title) : col.sub
> ## color for sub title : col.sub
> library(MASS)
> par(mfrow = c(2, 2))
> 
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 1, pch = 21, 
+      col.sub = "blue", sub = "col.sub = blue")
> 
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 1, pch = 21, 
+      col.sub = "red", sub = "col.sub = red")
> 
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 1, pch = 21, 
+      col.sub = "yellow", sub = "col.sub = yellow")
> 
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 1, pch = 21, 
+      col.sub = "gray", sub = "col.sub = gray")



 




  • 그래프 전경 색 지정 (color for foreground) : fg
> ## color for foreground : fg
> library(MASS)
> par(mfrow = c(2, 2))
> 
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 1, pch = 21, 
+      fg = "blue", main = "fg (foreground) = blue")
> 
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 1, pch = 21, 
+      fg = "red", main = "fg (foreground) = red")
> 
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 1, pch = 21, 
+      fg = "yellow", main = "fg (foreground) = yellow")
> 
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 1, pch = 21, 
+      fg = "gray", main = "fg(foreground) = gray")


 





  • 그래프 배경 색 지정 (color for background) : bg
bg는 그래프 기호의 배경색을 채울 때 사용합니다.  아래에 기호 모양 21번 (원)에 파랑색, 빨강색, 노랑색, 회색을 채워보았습니다.

> ## color for background :bg
> library(MASS)
> par(mfrow = c(2, 2))
> 
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 2, pch = 21, 
+      bg = "blue", main = "bg (background) = blue")
> 
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 2, pch = 21, 
+      bg = "red", main = "bg (background) = red")
> 
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 2, pch = 21, 
+      bg = "yellow", main = "bg (background) = yellow")
> 
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 2, pch = 21, 
+      bg = "gray", main = "bg (background) = gray")



 




bg (background color)는 속이 비어있는 pch 21번부터 25번 까지만 사용가능하며, 그 외에는 적용이 안됩니다. 아래에 pch =1 일 때 bg 옵션이 적용이 안된 것을 확인할 수 있습니다.

> ## bg (background color) only works with pch from 21 to 25
> 
> library(MASS)
> par(mfrow=c(3,2))
> 
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 2, pch = 1, 
+      bg = "blue", main = "pch = 1, bg is not working")
> 
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 2, pch = 21, 
+      bg = "blue", main = "pch = 21, bg is working")
> 
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 2, pch = 22, 
+      bg = "blue", main = "pch = 22, bg is working")
> 
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 2, pch = 23, 
+      bg = "blue", main = "pch = 23, bg is working")
> 
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 2, pch = 24, 
+      bg = "blue", main = "pch = 24, bg is working")
> 
> plot(MPG.highway ~ Weight, Cars93, cex = 2, pch = 25, 
+      bg = "blue", main = "pch = 25, bg is working")



 



다음번 포스팅에서는 그래프 영역과 내/외부 마진 모수 설정하는 방법에 대해서 알아보도록 하겠습니다.


많은 도움 되었기를 바랍니다.

 

이번 포스팅이 도움이 되었다면 아래의 '공감 ~♡' 단추를 꾸욱 눌러주세요.^^


 

Posted by R Friend R_Friend